Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Martin Frank

 GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ozean Research Kiel

 Research Unit Paleo-Oceanography

 Research Divison 1: Ocean Circulation and Climate Dynamics

 Room: 8/D-111
 Tel.: +49 431 600-2218
 Fax: +49 431 600-2925
 E-Mail: mfrank(at) 


 Wischhofstrasse 1-3 D-24148 Kiel


CV Martin Frank

Research Interests:

The research interests of my working group in “Chemical Paleoceanography” are focusing on the reconstruction of ocean circulation and its relationships to the climate of the past on different time scales. In addition, the relationships between erosional inputs from the continents, nutrient utilization, biological productivity, and the climate are subject of our investigations. For these reconstructions geochemical and isotopic proxy indicators are developed, improved and applied. Our interests are centred around radiogenic (Nd, Pb, Hf, Sr), stable (i.e. Si, Fe), and cosmogenic (10Be) isotope systems, as well as element distributions (i.e. rare earth elements, REEs). Besides the extraction of these proxy signatures from marine archives (sediments, manganese/iron crusts and nodules) a particular focus is the understanding of the processes controlling these proxies in the present day water column. For this we actively participate in the detailed investigations of the internationally coordinated research programme GEOTRACES in order to calibrate these proxies for their application to reconstruct the past. Our groups runs a state of the art clean laboratory and operates a MC-ICP mass spectrometer, and in collaboration with other groups at GEOMAR further techniques and methods are applied in order to achieve comprehensive multi proxy data sets.

Publications 1994-2011

Publications since 2012:


Filippova, A., Frank, M., Kienast, M., Rickli, J., Hathorne, E., Yashayaev, I.M., and Böning, P. (2017): Water mass circulation and weathering inputs in the Labrador Sea based on coupled Hf-Nd isotope compositions and rare earth element distributions.- Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 199, 164-184. (PDF - 4517kb)

Laukert, G., Frank, M., Bauch, D., Hathorne, E.C., Rabe, B., von Appen, W.J., Wegner, C., Zieringer, M., and Kassens, H. (2017): Ocean circulation and freshwater pathways in the Arctic Mediterranean based on a combined Nd isotope, REE and oxygen isotope  section across Fram Strait.- Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 202, 185-309. (PDF - 5935kb)

Poggemann, D.W., Hathorne, E.C., Nürnberg, D., Frank, M., Bruhn, I., Reißig, S., and Bahr, A. (2017): Rapid deglacial injection of nutrients into the Atlantic via Antarctic Intermediate Water.- Earth and Planetary Science Letters 463, 118-126. (PDF - 2097kb)

Grasse, P., Brzezinski, M.A., Cardinal, D., de Souza, G.F., Andersson, P., Closset, I., Cao, Z., Dai, M., Ehlert, C., Estrade, N., Francois, R., Frank, M., Jiang, G., Jones, J.L., Kooijman, E., Liu, Q., Lu, D., Pahnke, K., Ponzevera, E., Schmitt, M.,  Sun, X., Sutton, J.N., Thil, F., Weis, D., Wetzel, F., Zhang, A., Zhang, J. and Zhang, Z. (2017): GEOTRACES-intercalibration of the stable silicon isotope composition of dissolved silicic acid in seawater.- Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 32, 562-578.
(PDF - 665kb)

Dausmann, V., Frank., M., Gutjahr, M., and Rickli, J. (2017): Glacial reduction of AMOC strength and long term transition in weathering inputs into the Southern Ocean since the Mid Miocene: Evidence from radiogenic Nd and Hf isotopes.- Paleoceanography 32, 265-283. (PDF - 2095kb) 

Osborne, A.H., Hathorne, E.C., Schijf, J., Plancherel, Y., Böning, P., and Frank, M. (2017): The potential of sedimentary foraminiferal Rare Earth Element patterns to trace water masses in the past.- Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 18, 1550-1568. (PDF - 3288kb)

Sarnthein, M., Grunert, P., Khélifi, N., Frank, M., and Nürnberg, D. (2017): Interhemispheric teleconnections – Late Pliocene change in Mediterranean Outflow Water linked to changes in Indonesian Throughflow and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, a review and update.- International Journal of Earth Sciences, accepted.

Scholz, F., Siebert, C., Dale, A., and Frank, M. (2017): Intense molybdenum accumulation in sediments underneath a nitrogenous water column and implications for the reconstruction of paleo-redox conditions based on molybdenum isotopes.- Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 213, 400-417. (PDF - 1719kb)

Grasse, P., Bosse, L., Hathorne, E.C., Böning, P., Pahnke, K., and Frank, M. (2017): Short-term variability of dissolved Rare Earth Elements and neodymium isotopes in the entire water column of the Panama Basin.- Earth and Planetary Science Letters, accepted.

Laukert, G., Frank, M., Bauch, D., Hathorne, E.C., Gutjahr, M., Janout, M., and Hölemann, J. (2017):  Transport and transformation of riverine neodymium isotope and rare earth element signatures in high latitude estuaries: A case study from the Laptev Sea.- Earth and Planetary Science Letters, accepted.


Cao, Z., Siebert, C., Hathorne, E., Dai, M., and Frank, M. (2016): Constraining the oceanic barium cycle with stable barium isotopes.- Earth and Planetary Science Letters 434, 1-9. (PDF - 958kb)

Doering, K., Ehlert, C., Grasse, P., Crosta, X., Fleury, S., Frank, M., and Schneider, R. (2016): Differences between mono-generic and mixed diatom silicon isotope compositions trace present and past nutrient utilisation off Peru.- Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 177, 30-47.  (PDF - 1732kb)

Voigt, J., Hathorne, E., Frank, M., and Holbourn, A. (2016): Minimal influence of recrystallization on Middle Miocene benthic foraminiferal stable isotope stratigraphy in the eastern equatorial Pacific.- Paleoceanography 31, 98-114. (PDF - 6741kb)

van der Lubbe, J.J.L., Frank, M., Tjalingii, R., and Schneider, R.R. (2016): Neodymium isotope constraints on provenance, dispersal and supply of Zambezi sediments along the Mozambique margin during the past ~45,000 years.- Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 17, 181-198. (PDF - 3749kb)

Gebregiorgis, D., Hathorne , E.C., Sijinkumar, A.V.,  Nath, B.N., Nürnberg, D., and Frank, M. (2016): South Asian Summer Monsoon variability during the last ~54kyrs inferred from surface water salinity and river run off proxies.- Quaternary Science Reviews.- Quaternary Science Reviews 138, 6-15. (PDF - 6084kb)

Abbott, A.N., Tripati, A., Haley, B.A., Frank, M. (2016): Constraints on ocean circulation at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum from neodymium isotopes.- Climate of the Past 12, 837-847. (PDF - 1265kb)

Filippova, A., Kienast, M., Frank, M., and Schneider, R.R. (2016): Alkenone paleothermometry in the North Atlantic: A review and synthesis of surface sediment data and calibrations.- Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 17, 1370-1382. (PDF - 3453kb)  

Teschner, C., Frank, M., Haley, B.A., and Knies, J. (2016): Plio-Pleistocene evolution of water mass exchange and erosional input at the Atlantic-Arctic gateway.- Paleoceanography 31, 582-599. (PDF - 2726kb)

Blaser, P., Lippold, J., Gutjahr, M., Frank, N., Link, J.M., and Frank, M. (2016): Extracting foraminiferal seawater Nd isotope signatures with bulk sediment leaches.- Chemical Geology 439, 289-304. (PDF - 3233kb)

Molina-Kescher, M., Frank, M., Tapia, R., Ronge, T.A., Nürnberg, D., and Tiedemann, R. (2016): Reduced admixture of North Atlantic Deep Water to the deep central South Pacific during the last two glacial periods.- Paleoceanography 31, 651-668. (PDF - 1441kb)

Höfig, T., Hoernle, K., Hauff, F., and Frank, M. (2016): Hydrothermal versus active margin sediment supply to the eastern equatorial Pacific over the past 23 million years traced by radiogenic Pb isotopes: Paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic implications.- Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 190, 213-238. (PDF - 1484kb)

Ehlert, C., Doering, K., Wallmann, K., Scholz, F., Sommer, S., Grasse, P., Geilert, S. and Frank, M. (2016): Stable silicon isotope signatures of marine pore waters – biogenic opal dissolution versus authigenic clay mineral formation.- Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 191, 102-117. (PDF - 845kb)

Zheng, X, Li, A., Kao, S., Gong, X., Frank, M., Kuhn, G., Cai, W., Yan, H., Wan, S., Zhang, H., Jiang, F., Hathorne, E., Chen, Z., and Hu, B. (2016): Synchronicity of Kuroshio Current and climate system variability since the Last Glacial Maximum.- Earth and Planetary Science Letters 452, 247-257. (PDF - 2419kb)

Grasse, P., Ryabenko, E., Ehlert, C., Altabet, M.A., and Frank, M. (2016): Silicon and nitrogen cycling in the upwelling area off Peru: A dual isotope approach.- Limnology and Oceanography 61, 1661-1676. (PDF - 1012kb)

Hellmer, H., Rhein, M., Heinemann, G., Abalichin, J., Abouchami, W., Baars, O., Cubasch, U., Dethloff, K., Ebner, L., Fahrbach, E., Frank, M., Gollan, G., Greatbatch, R., Grieger, J., Gryanik, V., Gryschka, M., Hauck, J., Hoppema, M., Huhn, O., Kanzow, T., Koch, B., König-Langlo, G., Langematz, U., Leckebusch, G., Lüpkes, C., Paul, S., Rinke, A., Rost, B., Rutgers van der Loeff, M., Schröder, M., Seckmeyer, G., Stichel, T., Strass, V., Timmermann, R., Trimborn, S., Ulbrich, U., Venchiarutti, C.,  Wacker, U.,Willmes, S. and Wolf-Gladrow, D. (2016): Meteorology and Oceanography of the Atlantic Sector of the Southern Ocean - A Review of Recent Achievements.- Ocean Dynamics 66, 1379-1413. (PDF - 9256kb)

Doering, K., Erdem, Z., Ehlert, C., Fleury, S., Frank, M., and Schneider, R. (2016): Changes in diatom productivity and upwelling intensity off Peru since the Last Glacial Maximum: Response to basin-scale atmospheric and oceanic forcing.- Paleoceanography. (PDF - 6505kb)


Böhm, E., Lippold, J., Gutjahr, M., Frank, M., Blaser, P., Antz, B, Fohlmeister, J., Frank, N., Andersen, M., and Deininger, M. (2015): Strong and deep Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during the last glacial cycle.- Nature 517, 73-76. (PDF - 2468kb)

Voigt, J., Hathorne, E., Frank, M., Vollstaedt, H. and Eisenhauer, A. (2015): Variability of carbonate diagenesis in equatorial Pacific sediments deduced from radiogenic and stable Sr isotopes.- Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 148, 360-377. (PDF - 1366kb)

Ehlert, C., Grasse, P., Gutiérrez, D., Salvatteci, R., and Frank, M. (2015): Nutrient utilisation and weathering inputs in the Peruvian upwelling region since the Little Ice Age.- Climate of the Past 11, 187-202. (PDF - 794kb)

Stumpf, R., Kraft, S., Frank, M., Haley B.A., Holbourn, A. and Kuhnt, W. (2015): Persistently strong Indonesian Throughflow during Marine Isotope Stage 3: Evidence from radiogenic isotopes.- Quaternary Science Reviews 112, 197-206. (PDF - 1617kb)

Schönfeld, J., Kuhnt, W., Erdem, Z., Flögel, S., Glock, N., Aquit, M., Frank, M., and Holbourn, A. (2015): Records of past mid-depth ventilation: Cretaceous Ocean Anoxic Event 2 vs. Recent oxygen minimum zones.- Biogeosciences 12, 1169-1189. (PDF - 3084kb)

Ali, S., Hathorne, E., Frank, M., Gebregiorgis, D., Stattegger, K., Stumpf, R., Kutterolf, S., Johnson, J.E., and Giosan, L. (2015): South Asian monsoon history over the past 60 kyr recorded by radiogenic isotopes and clay mineral assemblages in the Andaman Sea.- Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 16, 505-521. (PDF - 1247kb)

Dausmann, V., Frank, M., Siebert, C., Christl, M., and Hein, J.R. (2015): The evolution of climatically driven weathering inputs into the western Arctic Ocean since the late Miocene: Radiogenic isotope evidence.- Earth and Planetary Science Letters 419, 111-124. (PDF - 2121kb)

Basak, C., Pahnke, K., Frank, M., Lamy, F., and Gersonde, R. (2015): Neodymium isotope characterization of Ross Sea Bottom Water and its advection through the southern South Pacific.- Earth and Planetary Science Letters 419, 211-221. (PDF - 5311kb)

Xiong, Z., Li ,T., Algeo, T., Doering, K., Frank, M., Brzezinski, M., Chang, F., Opfergelt, S., Crosta, X., Jiang, F., Wan, S., and Zhai, B. (2015): The silicon isotope composition of Ethmodiscus rex laminated diatom mats from the tropical West Pacific: Implications for silicate cycling during the Last Glacial Maximum.- Paleoceanography 30, 803-823. (PDF - 5289kb)

Cao, Z., Frank, M., and Dai, M. (2015): Dissolved silicon isotopic compositions in the East China Sea: Water mass mixing versus biological fractionation.- Limnology and Oceanography 60, 1619-1633. (PDF - 537kb)

The GEOTRACES Group (2015): The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014.- Marine Chemistry 177, 1-8. (PDF - 1396kb)

Hathorne, E., Stichel, T., Brück, B., and Frank, M. (2015): Rare earth element distribution in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean: The balance between particle scavenging and vertical supply.- Marine Chemistry 177, 157-171. (PDF - 1886kb)

Osborne, A., Haley, B.A., Hathorne, E., Plancherel, Y., and Frank, M. (2015): Rare Earth Element distribution in Caribbean seawater: Continental inputs versus lateral transport of distinct REE compositions in subsurface water masses.- Marine Chemistry 177, 172-183. (PDF - 2251kb)


Ali, S., Stattegger, K., Garbe-Schönberg, D., Frank, M., Kraft, S., and Kuhnt, W. (2014): The provenance of Cretaceous to Quaternary sediments in the Tarfaya basin, SW Morocco: evidence from trace element geochemistry and radiogenic Nd-Sr isotopes.- Journal of African Earth Sciences 90, 64-76. (PDF - 4579kb)

Haley, B.A., Frank, M., Hathorne, E.A. and Pisias, N. (2014): Biogeochemical implications from dissolved Rare Earth Element and Nd isotope distributions in the Gulf of Alaska.- Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 126, 455-474. (PDF - 3627kb)

Molina-Kescher, M., Frank, M., and Hathorne, E. (2014): South Pacific dissolved Nd isotope compositions and rare earth element distributions: Water mass mixing versus biogeochemical cycling.- Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 127, 171-189. (PDF - 3254kb)

Werner, K., Frank, M., Teschner, C., Müller, J., and Spielhagen, R.F. (2014): Neoglacial change in deep water exchange and increase of sea-ice transport through eastern Fram Strait: Evidence from radiogenic isotopes.- Quaternary Science Reviews 92, 190-207. (PDF - 2460kb)

Gutjahr, M., Frank, M., Lippold, J. and Halliday A.N. (2014): Peak last glacial weathering conditions on the North American continent recorded by the authigenic Hf isotope composition of North Atlantic deep-sea sediments.- Quaternary Science Reviews 99, 97-111. (PDF - 3072kb)

Khélifi, N. and Frank, M. (2014): A major change in North Atlantic deep water circulation 1.6 million years ago.- Climate of the Past 10, 1441-1451. (PDF - 2182kb)

Osborne, A., Newkirk, D.R., Groeneveld, J., Martin, E.E., Tiedemann, R., and Frank, M. (2014): The seawater neodymium and lead isotope record of the final stages of Central American Seaway closure.- Paleoceanography 29, 715-729. (PDF - 1778kb)

Khélifi, N., Sarnthein, M., Frank, M., Andersen, N., and Garbe-Schönberg, D. (2014): Late Pliocene variations of the Mediterranean outflow.- Marine Geology 357, 182-194. (PDF - 4837kb)

Osborne, A.H., Haley, B.A., Hathorne, E.C., Flögel, S., and Frank, M. (2014): Neodymium isotopes and concentrations in Caribbean seawater: Tracing water mass mixing and continental input in a semi-enclosed basin. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 406, 174-186. (PDF - 1733kb)

Molina Kescher, M., Frank, M., and Hathorne, E.C. (2014): Nd and Sr isotope compositions of different phases of surface sediments in the South Pacific: extraction of seawater signatures, boundary exchange, and detrital/dust provenance.- Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 15, 3502–3520. (PDF - 1072kb)

Blanchet, C., Frank, M., and Schouten, S. (2014): Asynchronous changes in vegetation, runoff and erosion in the Nile River watershed during the Holocene.- PLoS ONE 9, e115958. (PDF - 1240kb)



Rickli, J., Frank, M., Stichel, T., Georg, R.B., Vance, D., and Halliday A.N. (2013): Controls on the incongruent release of hafnium during weathering of metamorphic and sedimentary catchments.- Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 101, 263-284. (PDF - 2847kb)

Lachner, J., Christl, M., Synal, H.-A., Frank M. and Jakobsson, M. (2013): Carrier free 10Be/9Be measurements with low-energy AMS: Determination of sedimentation rates in the Arctic Ocean.- Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B. 294, 67-71. (PDF - 340kb)

Muiños, S.B., Hein, J.R., Frank, M., Monteiro, J.H., Gaspar, L., Conrad, T., Garcia Pereira, H. and Abrantes, F. (2013): Deep-sea Fe-Mn crusts from the northeast Atlantic Ocean: Composition and resource considerations.- Marine Georesources & Geotechnology 31, 40-70. (PDF - 2025kb)

Blanchet, C.L., Tjallingii, R., Frank, M., Lorenzen, J., Reitz, A., Brown, K., Feseker, T., and Brückmann, W. (2013): High- and low-latitude forcing of the fluvial regime of the Nile during the Holocene inferred from high-resolution analyses of laminated sediments from the Nile deep-sea fan.- Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 364, 98-110. (PDF - 1555kb)

Holbourn, A., Kuhnt, W., Frank, M., and Haley, B.A. (2013): Changes in Pacific Ocean circulation following the Miocene onset of permanent Antarctic ice cover.- Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 365, 38-50. (PDF - 1801kb)

Sprenk, D., Weber, M.E., Kuhn, G., Rosén, P., Frank, M., Molina-Kescher, M., Liebetrau, V., and Röhling, H.G. (2013): Southern Ocean bioproductivity during the last glacial cycle – new detection method and decadal-scale insight from the Scotia Sea.- ISAES Symposium special publication: Antarctic Palaeoenvironmental Evolution, in press.       

Chen, T.-Y, Li, G., Frank, M., and Ling, H.-F., Hu, R. (2013): Hafnium isotope fractionation during continental weathering: implications for the generation of the seawater Nd-Hf isotope relationship.- Geophysical Research Letters, in press.

Chen, T.-Y, Ling, H.-F., Hu, R., Frank, M., and Jiang, S.J. (2013): Lead isotope provinciality of central North Pacific Deep Water over the Cenozoic.- Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, in press.

Jiang, F., Frank, M., Li, T., Chen, T.-Y., Xu, Z., and Li, A. (2013): Asian dust input in the western Philippine Sea: Evidence from radiogenic Sr and Nd isotopes.- Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, in press.

Voigt, S., Jung, C., Friedrich, O., Frank, M., Teschner, C., and Hoffmann, J. (2013): Tectonically restricted deep-ocean circulation at the end of the Cretaceous greenhouse.- Earth and Planetary Science Letters, in press.


Stichel, T., Frank, M., Rickli, J., and Haley, B.A. (2012): The hafnium and neodymium isotope composition of seawater in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean.- Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 317-318, 282-294. (PDF - 2377kb)

Hathorne, E., Haley, B.A., Stichel, T., Grasse, P., Zieringer, M., and Frank, M. (2012): Online preconcentration ICP-MS analysis of Rare Earth Elements in seawater.- Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 13, Q01020, doi:10.1029/2011GC003907. (PDF - 765kb)

van de Flierdt T., Pahnke, K., Amakawa, H., Andersson, P., Basak, C., Coles, B., Colin, C., Crocket, K., Frank, M., Frank, N., Goldstein, S.L., Goswami, V., Haley, B.A., Hathorne, E.C., Hemming, S.R., Henderson, G.M., Jeandel, C., Jones, K., Kreissig, K., Lacan, F., Lambelet, M., Martin, E.E., Newkirk, D.R., Obata, H., Pena, L., Piotrowski, A.M., Pradoux, C., Scher, H.D., Schöberg, H., Singh, S.K., Stichel, T., Tazoe, H., Vance, D., Yang, J. (2012): GEOTRACES intercalibration of neodymium isotopes and rare earth element concentrations in seawater and suspended particles – Part 1: reproducibility of results for the international intercomparison.- Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 10, 234-251. (PDF - 1104kb)

De Souza, G.F., Reynolds, B.C., Rickli, J., Frank, M., Saito, M., Gerringa, L.J.A., and Bourdon, B. (2012): Southern Ocean control of silicon stable isotope distribution in the deep Atlantic Ocean.- Global Biogeochemical Cycles 26, GB2035, doi:10.1029/2011GB004141. (PDF - 3704kb)

Stichel, T., Frank, M., Rickli, J., Hathorne, E.A., Haley, B.A., Jeandel, C., and Pradoux, C. (2012): Sources and input mechanisms of hafnium and neodymium in surface waters of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean.- Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 94, 22-37. (PDF - 777kb)

Chen T.-Y, Frank, M., Haley, B.A., Gutjahr, M., and Spielhagen, R.F. (2012): Variations of north Atlantic inflow to the central Arctic Ocean over the last 14 million years inferred from hafnium and neodymium isotopes.- Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 353-354, 82-92. (PDF - 1136kb)

Etourneau, J., Ehlert, C., Frank, M., Martinez, P., and Schneider, R. (2012): Contribution of changes in opal productivity and nutrient distribution in the coastal upwelling systems to late Pliocene/early Pleistocene climate cooling.- Climate of the Past 8, 1435-1445. (PDF - 2220kb)

Grasse, P., Stichel, T., Stumpf, R., Stramma, L., and Frank, M. (2012): The distribution of neodymium isotopes and concentrations in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific: Water mass advection versus particle exchange.- Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 353-354, 198-207.
(PDF - 584kb)

Cao, Z., Frank, M., Dai, M., Grasse, P., and Ehlert, C. (2012): Silicon isotope constraints on sources and utilization of silicic acid in the northern South China Sea.- Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 97, 88-104. (PDF - 1307kb)

Ehlert, C., Grasse, P., MollierVogel, E., Böschen, T., Franz, J., de Souza, G.F., Reynolds, B.C., Stramma, L. and Frank, M. (2012): Factors controlling the silicon isotope distribution in waters and surface sediments of the Peruvian coastal upwelling.- Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 99, 128-145. (PDF - 1200kb)

Hein, J.R., Conrad, T.A., Frank, M., Christl, M. and Sager, W.W. (2012): Copper-nickel-rich, amalgamated ferromanganese crust-nodule deposits from Shatsky Rise, NW Pacific.- Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 13, Q10022, doi:10.1029/2012GC004286. (PDF - 6057kb)

Altabet, M., Ryabenko, E., Stramma, L., Wallace, D., Frank, M., Grasse, P. and Lavik, G. (2012): An eddy-stimulated hotspot for fixed nitrogen-loss from the Peru Oxygen Minimum Zone.- Biogeosciences 9, 4897-4908. (PDF - 3612kb)