Ocean Circulation and Climate Dynamics


Global Ocean at 1/2°

Surface Speed in ORCA05. Inlay shows zoomed region of the North Sea and the western part of the Baltic Sea to illustrate the model grid box size..

The 1/2° configuration ORCA05 does not resolve any mesoscale eddies, though its mixing effect is parameterized. This configuration is often used to investigate large-scale variability and to simulate periods lasting multiple hundred of years (also coupled to the atmosphere). It is also often used as base model for grid refinement experiments (AGRIF nests).


  • NEMO ocean
  • LIM2 sea ice (elastic-viscous rheology)
  • Tripolar ORCA grid
  • Grid Points: 511 x 722 x 46
  • Nominal Grid Point Distance: Eq: ~56 km; 60°N: ~30 km
  • Time Step: 2016s
  • Gent and McWilliams parameterization for eddy mixing
Minimum horizontal grid point distance (km) in ORCA05.


Typical simulations are:

  • Control run (climatological forcing)
  • Hindcast experiment (interannual forcing, past 60 years)
  • Several sensitivity runs (e.g. to single components of the atmospheric forcing or parameter settings)


Simulations and numerical experiments with this configuration are mostly done using high performance computing facilities at the University CAU in Kiel.


Data is available only internally. For data requests from outside GEOMAR, please contact the Model and Data Management (see right column).


Jump to: 2016 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008
Number of items: 18.



Ilıcak, M., Drange, H., Wang, Q., Gerdes, R., Aksenov, Y., Bailey, D., Bentsen, M., Biastoch, A. , Bozec, A., Böning, C. W. , Cassou, C., Chassignet, E., Coward, A. C., Curry, B., Danabasoglu, G., Danilov, S., Fernandez, E., Fogli, P. G., Fujii, Y., Griffies, S. M., Iovino, D., Jahn, A., Jung, T., Large, W. G., Lee, C., Lique, C., Lu, J., Masina, S., George Nurser, A. J., Roth, C., Salas y Mélia, D., Samuels, B. L., Spence, P., Tsujino, H., Valcke, S., Voldoire, A., Wang, X. and Yeager, S. G. (2016) An assessment of the Arctic Ocean in a suite of interannual CORE-II simulations. Part III: Hydrography and fluxes. Open Access Ocean Modelling, 100 . pp. 141-161. DOI 10.1016/j.ocemod.2016.02.004.



Danabasoglu, G., Yeager, S. G., Bailey, D., Behrens, E., Bentsen, M., Bi, D., Biastoch, A. , Böning, C. W. , Bozec, A., Canuto, V. M., Cassou, C., Chassignet, E., Coward, A. C., Danilov, S., Diansky, N., Drange, H., Farneti, R., Fernandez, E., Fogli, P. G., Forget, G., Fujii, Y., Griffies, S. M., Gusev, A., Heimbach, P., Howard, A., Jung, T., Kelley, M., Large, W. G., Leboissetier, A., Lu, J., Madec, G., Marsland, S. J., Masina, S., Navarra, A., George Nurser, A. J., Pirani, A., y Mélia, D. S., Samuels, B. L., Scheinert, M., Sidorenko, D., Treguier, A. M., Tsujino, H., Uotila, P., Valcke, S., Voldoire, A. and Wang, Q. (2014) North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part I: Mean states. Ocean Modelling, 73 . pp. 76-107. DOI 10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.10.005.


Duteil, O. , Schwarzkopf, F. U. , Böning, C. W. and Oschlies, A. (2014) Major role of the equatorial current system in setting oxygen levels in the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean: a high-resolution model study. Open Access Geophysical Research Letters, 41 . pp. 2033-2040. DOI 10.1002/2013GL058888.



Behrens, E., Biastoch, A. and Böning, C. W. (2013) Spurious AMOC trends in global ocean sea-ice models related to subarctic freshwater forcing. Ocean Modelling, 69 . pp. 39-49. DOI 10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.05.004.

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Durgadoo, J. V. , Loveday, B. R., Reason, C. J. C., Penven, P. and Biastoch, A. (2013) Agulhas Leakage Predominantly Responds to the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies. Open Access Journal of Physical Oceanography, 43 (10). pp. 2113-2131. DOI 10.1175/JPO-D-13-047.1.


Swingedouw, D., Rodehacke, C. B., Behrens, E., Menary, M., Olsen, S. M., Gao, Y., Mikolajewicz, U., Mignot, J. and Biastoch, A. (2013) Decadal fingerprints of freshwater discharge around Greenland in a multi-model ensemble. Climate Dynamics, 41 (3-4). pp. 695-720. DOI 10.1007/s00382-012-1479-9.

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Ummenhofer, C. C., Schwarzkopf, F. U. , Meyers, G., Behrens, E., Biastoch, A. and Böning, C. W. (2013) Pacific Ocean Contribution to the Asymmetry in Eastern Indian Ocean Variability. Open Access Journal of Climate, 26 . pp. 1152-1171. DOI 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00673.1.


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Behrens, E., Schwarzkopf, F. U. , Lübbecke, J. F. and Böning, C. W. (2012) Model simulations on the long-term dispersal of 137Cs released into the Pacific Ocean off Fukushima. Open Access Environmental Research Letters, 7 (3). 034004. DOI 10.1088/1748-9326/7/3/034004.



Biastoch, A. , Treude, T. , Rüpke, L. H. , Riebesell, U. , Roth, C., Burwicz, E. B. , Park, W. , Latif, M. , Böning, C. W. , Madec, G. and Wallmann, K. (2011) Rising Arctic Ocean temperatures cause gas hydrate destabilization and ocean acidification. Open Access Geophysical Research Letters, 38 (8). L08602. DOI 10.1029/2011GL047222.


Gary, S. F., Lozier, S. M., Böning, C. W. and Biastoch, A. (2011) Deciphering the pathways for the deep limb of the Meridional Overturning Circulation. Deep-Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies in Oceanography, 58 (17-18). pp. 1781-1797. DOI 10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.059.



Lübbecke, J. F. , Böning, C. W. , Keenlyside, N. and Xie, S. P. (2010) On the connection between Benguela and equatorial Atlantic Ninos and the role of the South Atlantic Anticyclone. Open Access Journal of Geophysical Research, 115 (C9). C09015. DOI 10.1029/2009JC005964.



Biastoch, A. , Beal, L., Lutjeharms, J. R. E. and Casal, T. G. D. (2009) Variability and coherence of the Agulhas Undercurrent in a High-resolution Ocean General Circulation Model. Open Access Journal of Physical Oceanography, 39 . pp. 2417-2435. DOI 10.1175/2009JPO4184.1.


Van Sebille, E., van Leeuwen, P. J., Biastoch, A. , Barron, C. N. and de Ruijter, W. P. M. (2009) Lagrangian validation of numerical drifter trajectories using drifting buoys: Application to the Agulhas region. Ocean Modelling, 29 . pp. 269-276. DOI 10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.05.005.



Alvarez-Garcia, F., Latif, M. and Biastoch, A. (2008) On multidecadal and quasi-decadal North Atlantic variability. Open Access Journal of Climate, 21 (14). pp. 3433-3452. DOI 10.1175/2007JCLI1800.1.


Biastoch, A. , Böning, C. W. and Lutjeharms, J. R. E. (2008) Agulhas leakage dynamics affects decadal variability in Atlantic overturning circulation. Nature, 456 . pp. 489-492. DOI 10.1038/nature07426.


Biastoch, A. , Böning, C. W. , Getzlaff, J., Molines, J. M. and Madec, G. (2008) Causes of Interannual–Decadal Variability in the Meridional Overturning Circulation of the Midlatitude North Atlantic Ocean. Open Access Journal of Climate, 21 . pp. 6599-6615. DOI 10.1175/2008JCLI2404.1.

This list was generated on Mon Feb 18 18:21:32 2019 CET.



Global + Nest



Model and Data Management

For general questions about the model configurations and data access, please contact:

Dr. Markus Scheinert
West Shore Building
Room 427
Phone: 0431 600-4014
email: mscheinert(at)geomar.de

Dr. Klaus Getzlaff
West Shore - Alte Botanik
Room 51
Phone: 0431 600-4179
email: kgetzlaff(at)geomar.de