Marine Biogeochemistry

DeepSea Monitoring Publications

Peer-reviewed publications



(39) Alevizos, E., Greinert, J. (2018), The Hyper-Angular Cube Concept for Improving the Spatial and Acoustic Resolution of MBES Backscatter Angular Response Analysis. Geosciences, 8, 446.

(38) Liu, H., Sticklus, J., Köser, K. , Hoving, H.-J. T., Song, H., Chen, Y., Greinert, J and Schoening, T (2018), TuLUMIS - a tunable LED-based underwater multispectral imaging system, Opt. Express 26 , 7811-7828

(37) Schoening, T., Köser, K. and Greinert, J. (2018). An acquisition, curation and management workflow for sustainable, terabyte-scale marine image analysis. Sci. Data 5:180181 doi: 10.1038/sdata.2018.181

(35) Gazis, I.Z., Schoening, T., Alevizos, E., and Greinert, J. (2018), Quantitative mapping and predictive modeling of Mn nodules’ distribution from hydroacoustic and optical AUV data linked by random forests machine learning. Biogeosciences, 15, 7347–7377.

(33) Peukert, A., Schoening, T., Alevizos, E., Köser, K., Kwasnitschka, T., and Greinert, J. (2018) Understanding Mn-nodule distribution and evaluation of related deep-sea mining impacts using AUV-based hydroacoustic and optical data, Biogeosciences, 15, 2525-2549,



(31) Plaza-Faverola, A., S. Vadakkepuliyambatta, W.-L. Hong, J. Mienert, S. Bünz, S. Chand, and Greinert, J (2017) Bottom-simulating reflector dynamics at Arctic thermogenic gas provinces: An example from Vestnesa Ridge, offshore west Svalbard, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 122, doi:10.1002/2016JB013761.

(30) Römer, M., Wenau, S., Mau, S., Veloso, M., Greinert, J. , Schlüter, M., and Bohrmann G. (2017) Assessing marine gas emission activity and contribution to the atmospheric methane inventory: A multidisciplinary approach from the Dutch Dogger Bank seep area (North Sea), Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 18, doi:10.1002/2017GC006995.

(29) Schoening, T., Jones, D. O. B., & Greinert, J (2017) Compact-Morphology-based poly-metallic Nodule Delineation. Scientific Reports, (May), 1–12.

(28) Alevizos, E., Snellen, J., Simons, D., Siemes, K., and  Greinert, J (2017) Multi-angle backscatter classification and sub-bottom profiling for improved seafloor characterization. Mar. Geophys Res. DOI 10.1007/s11001-017-9325-4

(27) Xu, C., Greinert, J., Haeckel, M., Bialas, J., Dimitrov, L. and Zhao, G. (In Press / Accepted) The Character and Formation of Elongated Depressions on the Upper Bulgarian Slope. Journal of Ocean University of China, 17 (1). Item availability may be restricted.

(26) Pohlman, J.W., Greinert, J., Ruppel, C., Silyakova, A., Vielstädte, L., Casso, M., Mienert, J.,Bünz, S. (2017) Enhanced CO2 uptake at a shallow Arctic Ocean seep field overwhelms the positive warming potential of emitted methane PNAS 2017 : 1618926114v1-201618926

(25) Jones, D.O.B., Kaiser, S, Sweetman, A.K., Smith, C.R., Menot, L., Vink A, Trueblood, D., Greinert, J., Billet, D.S.M., Martinez Arbizu, P., Radziejewska, T., Singh, Ravail, Ingole, B., Stratmann, T., Simon-Lledó, E., Durden, J.M., Clark, M.R. (2017) Biological responses to disturbance from simulated deep-sea polymetallic nodule mining. PLoS ONE 12(2):e0171750. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0171750

(24) Langenkämper, D., Zurowietz, M., Schoening, T. and Nattkemper ,T.W. (2017) BIIGLE 2.0 - Browsing and Annotating Large Marine Image Collections. Front. Mar. Sci. 4:83. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00083


(23) Urban, P., Köser, K. and Greinert, J. (2016) Processing of multibeam water column image data for automated bubble/seep detection and repeated mapping. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods. doi: 10.1002/lom3.10138

(22) Lorenson, T., Greinert, J., and Coffin, R. (2016) Dissolved methane in the Beaufort Sea and the Arctic Ocean, 1992-2009; Sources and atmospheric flux. Limnol. Oceanogr.

(21) Durden, J. M., Schoening, T., Althaus, F., Friedman, A., Garcia, R.l, Glover, A. G., Greinert, J., Jacobsen Stout, N., Jones, D. O.B., Jordt, A., Kaeli, J., Köser, K., Kuhnz, L. A., Lindsay, D., Morris, K. J., Nattkemper, T. W., Osterloff, J., Ruhl, H. A., Singh, H., Tran, M., Bett, B. J. (2016) Perspectives in visual imaging for marine biology and ecology: from acquisition to understanding. In, Hughes, R.N., Hughes, D.J., Smith, I.P. and Dale, A.C. (eds.) Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, Vol. 54. Boca Raton, US, CRC Press, 1-72.

(20) Gomes-Pereira, J. N., Auger, V., Beisiegel, K., Benjamin, R., Bergmann, M., Bowden, D.,  Buhl-Mortensen, P., De Leo, F.C., Dionísio, G., Durden, J.M., Edwards, L., Friedman, A., Greinert, J., Jacobsen-Stout, N., Lerner, S., Leslie, M., Nattkemper, T.W., Sameoto, J.A., Schoening, T., Schouten, R., Seager, J., Singh, H., Soubigou, O., Tojeira, I., van den Beld, I., Dias, F., Tempera, F., S. Santos, R. (2016) Current and future trends in marine image annotation software, Progress in Oceanography, Volume 149, Pages 106-120, ISSN 0079-6611,

(19) v. Haren, H., Greinert, J. (2016) Turbulent high-latitude oceanic intrusions—details of non-smooth apparent isopycnal transport West of Svalbard. Ocean Dynamics (2016) 66:785–794 DOI 10.1007/s10236-016-0955-x

(18) James R.H., Bousquet, P., Bussmann, I., Haeckel, M., Kipfer, R., Leifer, I., Niemann, H., Ostrovsky, I., Piskozub, J., Rehder, G., Treude, T., Vielstädte,, L., and Greinert, J. (2016) Effects of climate change on methane emissions from seafloor sediments in the Arctic Ocean: A review. Limnol. Oceanogr. 00, 2016, 00–00; doi: 10.1002/lno.10307

(17) Jordt, A., Köser, K., Koch, R. (2016) Refractive 3D reconstruction on underwater images, Methods in Oceanography, Volumes 15–16, Pages 90-113, ISSN 2211-1220,

Kwasnitschka, T., Köser, K., Sticklus, J., Rothenbeck, M., Weiß, T., Wenzlaff, E., Schoening, T., Triebe, L., Steinführer, A., Devey, C., Greinert, J. (2016) DeepSurveyCam: A deep ocean optical survey system, Sensors 16(2), 164; doi:10.3390/s16020164

(15) Luo, M., Dale, A.W., Haffert, L., Haeckel, M., Koch, S., Crutchley, G., De Stigter, H., Chen, D., Greinert, J. (2016) A quantitative assessment of methane cycling in Hikurangi Margin sediments (New Zealand) using geophysical imaging and biogeochemical modeling. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst.

(14) Lund Myhre, C., Ferré, B., Platt, S. M., Silyakova, A., Hermansen, O., Allen, G., Pisso, I., Schmidbauer, N., Stohl, A., Pitt, J., Jansson, P., Greinert, J., Percival, C., Fjaeraa, A. M., O'Shea, S. J., Gallagher, M., Le Breton, M., Bower, K. N., Bauguitte, S. J. B., Dalsøren, S., Vadakkepuliyambatta, S., Fisher, R. E., Nisbet, E. G., Lowry, D., Myhre, G., Pyle, J. A., Cain, M., Mienert, J. (2016) Extensive release of methane from Arctic seabed west of Svalbard during summer 2014 does not influence the atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 4624–4631, doi:10.1002/2016GL068999

(13) Saurer, O., Baatz, G., Köser, K., Ladicky, L., Pollefeys, M. (2016) Image Based Geo-localization in the Alps. International Journal of Computer Vision, Volume 116 Issue 3, Pages 213-225; doi 10.1007/s11263-015-0830-0

(12) Schoening, T., Kuhn, T., Jones, D. O.B., Simon-Lledo, E., Nattkemper, T. W., (2016) Fully automated image segmentation for benthic resource assessment of poly-metallic nodules. Methods in Oceanography, Volumes 15–16, Pages 78-89, ISSN 2211-1220,

(11) Schoening, T., Osterloff, J., Nattkemper, T. W. (2016) RecoMIA — Recommendations for Marine Image Annotation : Lessons Learned and Future Directions  Frontiers in Marine Science


(10) Alevizos, E., Snellen, M., Simons, D., Siems, K., and Greinert, J. (2015) Acoustic discrimination of relatively homogeneous fine sediments using Bayesian classification on MBES data. Marine Geology, 370 (2015) 31–42;

(9) Jordt, A. Zelenka, C., Schneider v. Deimling, J., Koch, R., Köser, K. (2015) The Bubble Box: Towards an Automated Visual Sensor for 3D Analysis and Characterization of Marine Gas Release Sites, Sensors, 15(12), 30716-30735; doi:10.3390/s151229825

(8) Koch, S., Berndt, C., Bialas, J., Haeckel, M., Crutchley, G., Papenberg, C., Klaeschen, D., and Greinert, J. (2015) Gas-controlled seafloor doming.
Geology, DOI:10.1130/G36596.1

(7) Steinle, L., Graves, C.A., Treude, T., Ferré, B., Biastoch, A., Bussmann, I., Berndt, C., Krastel, S., James, R.H., Behrens, E., Böning, C.W., Greinert, J., Sapart, C.-J., Scheinert, M., Sommer, S., Lehmann, M. F., and Niemann, H. (2015) Water column methanotrophy controlled by arapid oceanographic switch. Nature Geosciences, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2420

(6) Veloso, M., Greinert,. J., Mienert, J., and De Batits, M. (2015): A new methodology for quantifying bubble flow rates in deep water using splitbeam echosounders: Examples from the Arctic offshore NW-Svalbard. Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods, doi: 10.1002/lom3.10024


(5) Dale, A., Sommer, S., Ryabenko, E., Noffke, A., Bohlen, L., Wallmann, K., Stolpovsky, K., Greinert, J., and Pfannkuche, O. (2014): Benthic nitrogen fluxes and fractionation of nitrate in the Mauritanian oxygen minimum zone (Eastern Tropical North Atlantic). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 134, 234-256, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2014.02.026

(4) Hoekendijk, J.P.A., de Vries, J., van der Bolt, K., Greinert, J., Brasseur, S., Camphuysen, K.C.J., and Aarts, G. (2014) Estimating the spatial position of marine mammals based on digital camera recordings. Ecology and Evolution, doi: 10.1002/ece3.1353

(3) Smith, J.A.,Mienert. J., Bünz, S., and Greinert, J. (2014) Thermogenic methane injection via bubble transport into the upperArctic Ocean from the hydrate-charged Vestnesa Ridge, Svalbard. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. DOI 10.1002/2013GC005179

(2) Hamdan, L.J., Coffin, R.B., Sikaroodi, M., Greinert, J., Treude, T., and Gillevet, P.M. (2013) Ocean currents shape the microbiome of Arctic marine sediments. ISME J. 2013 Apr;7(4):685-96. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2012.143


(1) v. Haren, H., Greinert, J. (2013): Variability of internal frontal bore breaking above Opouawe Bank methane seep area (New Zealand). Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 14 (7), 2460-2473. doi: 10.1002/ggge.20170.



Schoening T., Durden J., Preuss I., Branzan Albu A., Purser A., De Smet B., Dominguez-Carrió C., Yesson C.,  de Jonge D., Lindsay D., Schulz J., Möller K., Beisiegel K., Kuhnz L., Hoeberechts M., Piechaud N., Sharuga S., Treibitz T. (2017) Report on the Marine Imaging Workshop 2017. Research Ideas and Outcomes 3: e13820:

Peukert, A., Petersen, S., Greinert, J. and Charlot, F. (2017) Submarine mining. In: Submarine geomorphology. , ed. by Micallef, A., Krastel, S. and Savini, A.. Springer, Cham, pp. 481-502.

Saurer, O., Baatz, G., Köser, K., Ladicky, L., Pollefeys, M. (2016) Image-based Large Scale Geo-Localization in Mountainous Regions. In A.Zamir, A.Hakeem, L. Van Gool, M.Shah, R.Szeliski (Eds.): Large Scale Visual Geolocalization, Springer-Verlag ISBN 978-3-319-25781-5

Schulz, K. O., Möller, Bracher, A., Hieronymi, M., Cisewski, B., Zielinski, O., Voss, D.,  Gutzeit, E., Dolereit, T., Niedzwiedz, G., Kohlberg, G., Schories, D., Kiko, R., Körtzinger, A., Falldorf, C., Fischer, P., Nowald, N., Beisiegel, K., Martinez-Arbizu, P., Rüssmeier, N.,  Röttgers, R., Büdenbender, J., Jordt-Sedlazeck, A., Koch, R., Riebesell, U., Hvitfeldt Iversen,  M., Köser, K., Kwasnitschka, T., Wellhausen, J., Barz, K., Rohde, S., Nattkemper, T. W., Schoening, T., Peeters, F., Hofmann, H., Busch, J. A., Hirche, H. , Niehoff, B., Hildebrandt, N., Stohr, E., Winter, C., Herbst, G., Konrad, C., Schmidt, M., Linke, P., Brey, T., Bange, H. W., Nolle, L., Krägefsky, S.,  Gröger, J., Sauter, E., Schulz,  M., Müller, J., Rehder, G., Stepputtis, D., Beszteri, B., Kloster, M., Kauer, G., Göritz, A., Gege, P.,. v. Lukas, U. F., Bathmann U. (2015) Aquatische Optische Technologien in Deutschland. Meereswiss. Berichte des IOW, Warnemünde, 97DOI: 10.12754/msr-2015-0097


Prof. Dr. Jens Greinert
DSM Group Leader

Room: 8A-103
Phone: +49 431 600-2590
E-Mail: jgreinert(at)


Mia Schumacher
Group assistance

Room: 8A-104
Phone: +49 431 600-2507
E-mail: mschumacher(at)


Anne Peukert
Group assistance (from Feb 2019)

Room: 8A-104
Phone: +49 431 600-2507
E-mail: apeukert(at)


Dr. Inken-Marie Preuss
Research coordination and group assistance

(currently on maternity & parental leave)