Simple carbohydrates are quantified applying high performance ion exchange chromatography, coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) after Engel and Händel (2011). Total, dissolved and particulate fractions can be seperated employing different filtration methods. The following carbohydrates can be measured:
Neutral sugars: Fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, xylose, mannose and glucose.
Amino sugars: Galactosamine, glucosamine.
Acidic sugars: Galacturonic acid, gluconic acid, glucuronic acid and muramic acid.
Prior to analysis the salt has to be removed from the sample using dialysis. In order to quantify the single sugars, the samples are hydrolyzed applying heat and 1M HCl. The acid is removed introducing the sample in a microwave under vacuum and surrounded by a nitrogen atmosphere.
The instrument used for this analysis is a Dionex ICS-3000 equipped with a double pump system and an autosampler.