Dr. rer. nat. Sascha Flögel

Forschungsbereich 1: Ozeanzirkulation und Klimadynamik
FE Paläo-Ozeanographie
Forschungsbereich 2: Marine Biogeochemie
FE Marine Geosysteme

Room: 8/C-105
Phone: +49 431 600-2312
Email: sfloegel(at)

Wischhofstrasse 1-3
D-24148 Kiel

Research Interests

Numeric modeling

My research focuses on the use of numerical climate and biogeochemical models (full coupled GCMs, earth system models of intermediate complexity, and biogeochemical box models) in global and regional climate research. Covering geological, present day, and future time scales I investigate the role of global biogeochemical cycling of C, P, O2, ... and the terrestrial hydrological cycle on e.g. marine nutrient inventories, ventilation of the water column. Most of my research is dedicated to times of global warmth, e. g. greenhouse climates where I currently work on the underlying orbital and biogeochemical cycles that lead to the development of Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). The understanding of processes ‘unique’ to greenhouse climates is of great interest for insights into past and future climate change. Currently, we’re coupling and running biogeochemical box models to a GCM to investigate marine oxygen concentrations during OAEs in the Cretaceous.
Another focal point of my research is the influence of orbital cycles, so-called Milankovitch cycles on Earth’s climate and sedimentation patterns during the geological past.

Cold-water corals

A second topic of my current research is the growth and distribution of cold-water corals (e.g. Lophelia pertusa) and their relation to the hydrographic regime of the ambient water masses. Therefore, we use state-of-the-art marine stand-alone observatories to conduct long-term measurements of various physical and biogeochemical parameters in bottom waters and throughout the water column in multiple ocean basins.


ARCHES - Autonomous Robotic Networks to Help Modern Societies (2018-2021)

The importance of robotics for industry and science is continuously growing. In the long term, robotic systems will even become indispensable for modern societies as omnipresent and tireless work-power resource. Especially for the Helmholtz Association mission of finding answers for the essential questions of the human society, autonomous robot networks will become a key technology.
In particular, solving tasks like monitoring and understanding the ocean environment or exploration of the solar system will strongly depend on the deployment of autonomous and networked robotic systems. They will provide the required capabilities for continuous, long-term, and large-scale data recording as well as for manipulation and direct interaction with the surroundings. Robots allow monitoring and object manipulation on a large scale in harsh and vast environments. Accordingly, a robot network will be created within this project, which acts as an enhancement of human perception and as an extended arm for human manipulation.
The aim of the consortium is to perform interdisciplinary research on such technologies across the two domains of ocean and planetary exploration. We aim to set the robotics basis for solving the upcoming social challenges according to the mission of the Helmholtz Association. One objective of ARCHES is to create a network of robotic expertise within the Helmholtz Association. It will unite the existing robotic development branches from separate domains and therefore will lead to great advancement in robotic technology within Germany and beyond.
Through ARCHES, networks of robotic systems will be developed that fulfill the requirements for robustness and reliability characteristic for the domains. The existing hardware platforms consisting of configurable carrier systems as well as modules of sensors and manipulators that are interchangeable for applications in different systems and domains will be cross-validated. That way, the goal of creating synergies within the network of expertise will be realized. Furthermore, the aim of the project is to develop approaches that allow robots to acquire, analyze, and interpret measured data in an autonomous way. Consequently, the scope of ARCHES also includes the intelligent automation and cooperation of robotic systems. Both of these aspects are essential considering the importance of standalone robots and robot teams in all regarded applications and domains.
This also requires concepts for autonomous navigation in unknown areas, interaction and manipulation inside the environment, energy management systems and self-organising communication systems which allow the communication between different robots of a network and the communication of the network with the mission control entity.
For a seamless interaction of robots and humans an interface is required that allows to coordinate the robot team almost as intuitively as one would coordinate a team of humans. This way, non-robotics experts can efficiently participate in the mission planning procedure. The ARCHES project aims to develop common solutions for the aforementioned challenges and will establish cross-domain interfaces.
Further applications in other fields like medicine, rehabilitation, logistics and urban transportation will benefit from the fundamental concepts developed in ARCHES. For example, a transport network based on autonomous robot units will be a great assistance for the ageing society, as it could maintain the self-determined life and the mobility of elderly people. 


ARIM-FUEL – Development of a submarine fuel cell (2018-2021)

ARIM (Autonomous Robotic Sea-Floor Infrastructure for Bentho-Pelagic Monitoring) is a multi-national joint effort to establish novel sampling and processing technologies combined with a robust benthic based infrastructure that approach these sampling challenges. The product should fulfil the requirements from industry/government monitoring as well as basic research.
At GEOMAR the focus is on the development of a submarine fuell cell system for longterm deployments. This will take place in close collaboration with international research institutes and companies dedicated to energy-scientific-technical topics.

Selected Publications

Articles in Peer Reviewed Journals


Aguzzi, J., Flexas, M.M., Flögel, S. et al. (2020) Exo-Ocean Exploration with Deep-Sea Sensor and Platform Technologies. Astrobiology, 20, 7, doi: 10.1089/ast.2019.2129.

Aguzzi, J., Albiez, J., Flögel, S. et al. (2020) A Flexible Autonomous Robotic Observatory Infrastructure for Bentho-Pelagic Monitoring. Sensors, 20, 1614; doi:10.3390/s20061614.

Juva, K., Flögel, S., Karstensen, J., Linke, P., and Dullo, W.-C. (2020) Tidal  dynamics control on cold-water coral growth: A high-resolutionmultivariable study on eastern Atlantic cold-water coral sites. Frontiers in Marine Science, 7:132, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2020.00132.

Steinig, S., Dummann, W., Park, W., Latif, M., Kusch, S., Hofmann, P., and Flögel, S. (2020) Evidence for a regional warm bias in the Early Cretaceous TEX86 record. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 539, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2020.1161840012-821X .

Dummann, W., Steinig, S., Hofmann, P., Flögel, S., Osborne, A. H., Frank, M., Herrle, J. O., Bretschneider, L., Sheward, R. M. und Wagner, T. (2020) The impact of Early Cretaceous gateway evolution on ocean circulation and organic carbon burial in the emerging South Atlantic and Southern Ocean basins. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 530, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2019.115890.


Hanz, U., Wienberg, C., Hebbeln, D., Duineveld, G., Lavaleye, M., Juva, K., Dullo, W. C., Freiwald, A., Tamborrino, L., Reichart, G. J., Flögel, S. und Mienis, F. (2019) Environmental factors influencing benthic communities in the oxygen minimum zones on the Angolan and Namibian margins .  Biogeosciences (BG), 16 (22). pp. 4337-4356. DOI 10.5194/bg-16-4337-2019.

Wallmann, K., Flögel, S., Scholz, F., Dale, A. W., Kemena, T. PO., Steinig, S. and Kuhnt, W. (2019) Periodic changes in the Cretaceous ocean and climate caused by marine redox see-saw. Nature Geosciences,

Scholz, F., Beil, S., Flögel, S., Lehmann, M. F., Holbourn, A., Wallmann, K. and Kuhnt, W. (2019) Oxygen minimum zone-type biogeochemical cycling in the Cenomanian-Turonian Proto-North Atlantic across Oceanic Anoxic Event 2. Earth and Planetary Science Letters,

Aguzzi, J., Chatzievangelou, D., Marini, S., Fanelli, E., Danovaro, R., Flögel, S., Lebris, N., Juanes, F., De Leo, F.C., Del Rio, J., Thomsen, L., Costa, C., Riccobene, G., Tamburini, C., Lefevre, D., Gojak, C., Poulain, P.M., Favali, P., Griffa, A., Purser, A., Cline, D., Edgington, D, Navarro, J., Stefanni, S., D'Hondt, S., Priede, I.G., Rountree, R. and Company, J.B. (2019) New High-Tech Flexible Networks for the Monitoring of Deep-Sea Ecosystems. Environmental Science Technol. 53, 12, 6616-6631, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b00409.


Gori, A., Orejas, C., Flögel, S., Grinyó Andreu, J., Viladrich, N., Ferrier-Pagès, C., Gili, J.-M., Grover, R., Rueda, L. and Tolosa, I. (2018) Trophic ecology and nutritional condition of the cold-water coral Dendrophyllia cornigera in highly productive versus oligotrophic areas, as revealed by lipid biomarkers and compound specific isotope analyses. Deep-Sea Research I,

Dullo, C., Flögel, S. and Rüggeberg, A., (2018) Water Mass Measurements Around Benthic Communities: A Comparative Study Between Yo-Yo Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Casts and High-Resolution Time Series Data Acquisition of Bottom Waters from
the Page`s Escarpment in the Southern Bay
of Biscay. In: C.W. Finkl, C. Makowski (eds.), Diversity in Coastal Marine Sciences, Coastal
Research Library 23, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-57577-3_11.

Beil, S., Kuhnt, W., Holbourn, A. E., Aquit, M., Flögel, S., Chellai, E. H. and Jabour, H. (2018) New insights into Cenomanian paleoceanography and climate evolution from the Tarfaya Basin, southern Morocco. Cretaceous Research. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2017.11.006.


Kuhnt, W., Holbourn, A. E., Beil, S., Aquit, M., Krawcyk, T., Flögel, S., Chellai, E. H. and Jabour, H. (2017) Unraveling the onset of Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 in an extended sediment archive from the Tarfaya-Laayoune Basin, Morocco. Paleoceanography, doi: 10.1002/2017PA003146.

Johanson, A., Flögel, S., Dullo, W.-C., Linke, P. and Hasselbring, W. (2017) Modeling polyp activity of Paragorgia arborea using supervised learning. Ecological Informatics, doi: /10.1016/j.ecoinf.2017.02.007.


Rüggeberg, A., Flögel, S., Dullo, W.C., Raddatz, J., and Liebetrau, V. (2016) Paleo-seawater density reconstruction and its implication for cold-water coral carbonate mounds in the northeast Atlantic through time. Paleoceanography, doi: 10.1002/2015PA002859.

Raddatz, J., Liebetrau, V., Trotter, J., Rüggeberg, A., Flögel, S., Dullo, W.-C., Eisenhauer, A., Voigt, S., and McCulloch, M. (2016) Environmental constraints on Holocene cold-water coral reef growth off Norway: Insights from a multiproxy approach. Paleoceanography, doi: 10.1002/2016PA002974.


Poulton, S.W., Henkel, S., März, C., Urquhart, H., Flögel, S., Kasten, S., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., and Wagner, T. (2015) A continental weathering control on orbitally-driven redox-nutrient cycling during Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2. Geology, doi:10.1130/G36837.1.

Rovelli, L., Attard, K. M., Bryant, L. D., Flögel, S., Stahl, H. J., Roberts, M., Linke, P. and Glud, R. N. (2015) Benthic O2 uptake of two cold-water coral communities estimated with the non-invasive eddy-correlation technique. Marine Ecology Progress Series, doi: 10.3354/meps11211.

Schönfeld, J., Kuhnt, W., Erdem, Z., Flögel, S., Glock, N., Aquit, M., Frank, M. and Holbourn, A. (2015): Systematics of past changes in ocean ventilation: a comparison of Cretaceous Ocean Anoxic Event 2 and Pleistocene to Holocene Oxygen Minimum Zones. Biogeosciences Discussions, 11, 13343–13387, doi:10.5194/bgd-11-13343-2014.

Titschack, J., Baum, D., De Pol-Holz, R., López Correa, M., Forster, N., Flögel, S., Hebbeln, D., and Freiwald, A. (2015) Aggradation and carbonate accumulation of Holocene Norwegian cold-water coral reefs. Sedimentology, doi:10.1111/sed.12206.

Glogowski, S., Dullo, W.-Chr., Feldens, P., Liebetrau, V., von Reumont, J., Hühnerbach, V., Krastel, S., Wynn, R.B., and Flögel, S. (2015) The Eugen Seibold coral mounds offshore western Morocco: oceanographic and bathymetric boundary conditions of a newly discovered cold-water coral province. Geo Marine Letters, doi:10.1007/s00367-015-0405-7.


Flögel, S., Dullo, W.-Chr., Pfannkuche, O., Kiriakoulakis, K., and Rüggeberg, A. (2014) Geochemical and physical constraints for the occurrence of living cold-water corals. Deep-Sea Research II, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.06.006.

Flögel, S. et al. (2014) TRANSBISCAY – Cruise No. M84/5, METEOR-Berichte; M84/5, doi: 10.2312/cr_m84_5.

Osborne, A.H., Haley, B.A., Hathorne, E.C., Flögel, S. and Frank, M. (2014) Neodymium isotopes and concentrations in Caribbean seawater: Tracing water mass mixing and continental input in a semi-enclosed ocean basin. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.09.011

Sijp, W.P., von der Heydt, A.S., Dijkstra, H.A., Flögel, S., Douglas, P.M.J., and Bijl, P.K. (2014) The role of ocean gateways on cooling climate on long time scales. Global and Planetary Change, doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.04.004.

Raddatz, J., Rüggeberg, A. Flögel, S., Hathorne, E., Liebetrau, V., Eisenhauer, A., and Dullo, W.-Chr. (2014) The influence of seawater pH on U/Ca ratios in the scleractinian cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa, Biogeosciences Discussions, 10, 15711-15733, doi: 10.5194/bgd-10-15711-2013.


Flögel, S., Rüggeberg, A., Mienis, F. and Dullo, W-Chr. (2013): Geochemical and physical constraints for the occurrence of living cold-water corals. Deep-Sea Research I. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.06.006.

McAnena, A., Flögel, S., Hofmann, P., Herrle, J.O., Griesand, A., Pross, J., Talbot, H.M., Rethemeyer, J., Wallmann, K. and Wagner, T. (2013): Atlantic ocean cooling and marine biotic crisis in the mid-Cretaceous. Nature Geosciences, doi: 10.1038/NGEO1850.

Lorenzen, J., Kuhnt, W., Holbourn, A., Flögel, S., Moullade, M. and Tronchetti, G. (2013): A new sediment core from the Bedoulian (Lower Aptian) stratotype at Roquefort-La Bédoule, SE France. Cretaceous Research, doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2012.03.019.

Wagner, T., Hofmann, P. and Flögel, S. (2013): Marine black shale deposition and Hadley Cell dynamics: A conceptual framework for the Cretaceous Atlantic Ocean. Marine Petroleum Geology.

Bahr, A., Schönfeld, J., Hoffmann, J., Voigt, S., Aurahs, R., Kucera, M., Flögel, S., Jentzen, A. and Gerdes, A. (2013): Comparison of Ba/Ca and as freshwater proxies: A multi-species core-top study on planktonic foraminifera from the vicinity of the Orinoco River mouth, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 383, 45-57, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2013.09.036.


Hay, W.W. and Flögel, S. (2012): New Thoughts about the Cretaceous Climate and Oceans. Earth Science Reviews,

López Correa, M., Montagna, P., Joseph, N., Rüggeberg, A., Fietzke, J., Flögel, S., Dorschel, B., Goldstein, S.L., Wheeler, A. and Freiwald, A. (2012): Preboreal onset of cold-water coral growth beyond the Arctic Circle revealed by coupled radiocarbon and U-series dating and neodymium isotopes, Quaternary Science Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.12.005.


Flögel, S., Wallmann, K., Poulsen, C. J., Zhou, J., Oschlies, A., Voigt, S. and Kuhnt, W. (2011): Simulating the biogeochemical effects of volcanic CO2 degassing on the oxygen-state of the deep ocean during the Cenomanian/Turonian Anoxic Event (OAE2). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 305, 371-384, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.03.018.

Flögel, S., Wallmann, K. and Kuhnt, W. (2011) Cool episodes in the Cretaceous –
exploring the effects of physical forcing on Antarctic snow accumulation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 307, 279-288.

Flögel, S. and Dullo W.-Chr. (2011): High resolution water mass measurements around cold-water corals: a comparative test study between repeated Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts and continuous data acquisition of bottom waters from the West Florida Slope, Gulf of Mexico. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A 113, 209-224.

Schönfeld, J., Dullo, W.-Chr. and Flögel, S. (2011): Surface and Intermediate Water hydrography, planktonic and benthic biota in the Caribbean Sea - Climate, Bio and Geosphere linkages (OPOKA). Cruise No. 78, Leg 1, February 22 – March 28, 2009, Colón (Panama) - Port of Spain (Trinidad and Tobago). Meteor-Berichte 11-6, 40 pp., Senatskommission für Ozeanographie der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft, MARUM, Bremen.


Flögel, S., Parkin, G., Pollard, D., Dullo, W.-Chr. and Wagner , T. (2010): Simulating zonal scale shifts in the partitioning of surface and subsurface freshwater flow in response to increasing pCO2. Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0929-5.

Flögel, S., Moullade, M. and Kuhnt, W. (2010): Drilling of Early Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a in Southern France. Scientific Drilling, No. 9, 20-22.

Rüggeberg, A. Flögel, S., Dullo, W.-Chr., Hissmann, K. and Freiwald, A. (2010):
Water mass characteristics and sill dynamics in a subpolar cold-water coral reef setting at Stjernsund, northern Norway. Marine Geology, doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2010.05.009.

Hübscher, C., Dullo, W.-Chr., Flögel, S., Titschack, J. and Schönfeld, J. (2010): Contourite drift evolution and related coral growth in the eastern Gulf of Mexico and its gateways. International Journal of Earth Sciences. doi:10.1007/s00531-010-0558-6.


Sommer, S. Linke P., Pfannkuche O., Schleicher T., Schneider v. Deimling J., Reitz A., Haeckel M., Flögel S. and Hensen C. (2009): Sea bed methane emissions and the habitat of frenulate tubeworms on the Captain Arutyunov mud volcano (Gulf of Cadiz). Marine Ecological Progress Series. Vol. 382: 69–86, doi: 10.3354/meps07956.


Flögel, S., Beckmann, B., Hofmann, P., Bornemann, A., Westerhold, T., Norris, R. D. and Wagner, T. (2008): Evolution of tropical watersheds and continental hydrology during the Late Cretaceous greenhouse; impact on marine carbon burial and possible implications for the future. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.06.011.

Dullo, W-Chr., Flögel, S. and Rüggeberg, A. (2008): Cool water coral growth in relation to the hydrography of the Celtic and Nordic European Continental Margin. Marine Ecological Progress Series. doi: 10.3354/meps07623.


Floegel, S. and Wagner, T. (2006): Insolation-control on the Late Cretaceous hydrological cycle and tropical African climate – global climate modelling linked to marine climate records. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 235, 288-304.

Hay, W. W., Migdisov, A., Balukhovsky, A. N., Wold, C. N., Flögel, S. and Söding, E. (2006): Evaporites and the salinity of the ocean during the Phanerozoic: Implications for climate, ocean circulation and life. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 240, 1-2, 3-46.


Beckmann, B., Flögel, S., Hofmann, P., Schulz, M. and Wagner, T. (2005): Upper Cretaceous African climate development and implications for the marine carbon cycle. Nature, 437, 241-244, doi:10.1038/nature03976.

Floegel, S., Hay, W. W., DeConto, R. M. and Balukhovsky, A. N. (2005): Formation of sedimentary bedding couplets in the Western Interior Seaway of North America – Implications from Climate System Modeling. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 218, 1-2 , 125-143.

Hay, W. W., Flögel, S. and Söding, E. (2005): Is the initiation of glaciation on Antarctica related to a change in the structure of the ocean? Global and Planetary Change, 45, 1-3, 23-33.


Voigt, S., Flögel, S. and Gale, A. (2004): Midlatitude shelf seas in the Cenomanian-Turonian greenhouse world: Temperature evolution and North Atlantic circulation. Paleoceanography, vol. 19, PA4020, 1-17.


Mutterlose, J., Brumsack, H., Floegel, S., Hay, W. W., Klein, C., Langrock, U., Lipinski, M., Ricken, W., Söding, E., Stein, R. and Swientek, O. (2003): The Greenland-Norwegian Seaway: a key area for understanding Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous paleoenvironments. Paleoceanography, vol. 18, no. 1, 1010.

Articles in Edited Volumes/Books


Dullo, W.-Chr., Flögel, S. und Rüggeberg, A. (2011): Korallen - verborgene Ästhetik an den Kontinentalrändern un den Tiefen der Meere 25 Jahre FS METEOR : Ein Forschungsschiff und seine Geschichte(n). Hauschild, Bremen, pp. 103-107.

Klages, M. and Thiede, J. (2011): The expedition of the research vessel "Polarstern" to the Arctic in 2007 (ARK-XXII/1a-c) / Ed. by Michael Klages & Jörn Thiede with contributions of the participants / J. Thiede (editor), Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung (Reports on Polar and Marine Research), Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 627 , 243 p., ISSN: 1866-3192 .


Schönfeld, J., Dullo, W.-Chr. and Flögel, S. (2010): Ölaustritte - Schädigung der Tiefsee. -- In: Söding, E., Balzereit, F. &  Schäfer, K. (Eds.): Die Ölkatastrophe im Golf von Mexiko - was bleibt?, pp. 32-33; Exzellenzcluster “Ozean der Zukunft", Christian - Albrechts - Universität zu Kiel, http:// user_upload/pdf/FO_GOM_Kommentare_v1.pdf.


Pfannkuche, O., Bannert, B., Beck, T., Beuck, L., Dullo, W.-Chr., Flögel, S., Freiwald, A., Gass, S., Gektidis, M., Heger, A., Jamieson, A., Kavanagh, F., King, N., Kuhanec, B., Linke, P., Martin, B., Neulinger, S., Noe, S., Queisser, W., Rüggeberg, A., Ruseler, S., Schiemer, I., Schmidt, S., Schönfeld, J., Taviani, M., Türk, M., Vertino, A. und Wigham, B. (2004): Geo-Biological Investigations on Azooxanthellate Cold-Water Coral Reefs on the Carbonate Mounds Along the Celtic Continental Slope Meteor-Berichte, 06-2.


Hay, W. W., Wold, C. N., Floegel, S. and Soeding, E. (2001): Evolution of sediment fluxes and ocean salinity. In: Geologic and Simulation: Sedimentary Systems, Merriam, D. F. and Davis, J. C., eds., Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, U. S. A., 153-167.

Complete list of publications in OceanRep