There now existed a broad spectrum of marine sciences in Kiel, a unique situation in Germany. Some initial collaboration transformed into plans for a merger which then took place on January 1, 2004 when IfM and GEOMAR combined to form a joint Leibniz Institute at Kiel University (IFM-GEOMAR), directed by the geologist Peter Herzig. The institute then grew rapidly, with a staff of 320 at the time of the merger, and more than 500 by the end of 2008.The four research divisions are Ocean Circulation and Climate Dynamics, Marine Biogeochemistry, Marine Ecology, and Dynamics of the Ocean Floor. Marine scientists from Kiel are involved in worldwide ocean research and contribute to many national and international bodies. At the same time, the institute cooperates closely with related institutes within the CAU and many of IFM-GEOMAR's scientists teach at the university. IFM-GEOMAR and the university collaborate in major research projects. The “Future Ocean” Cluster of Excellence was established within the framework of the federal government’s Excellence Initiative. Partners are the CAU, the IFM-GEOMAR, the Kiel Institute for the World Economy, and the Muthesius Academy of Fine Arts and Design. The Kiel Center for Marine Substances (KiWiZ) was founded in Kiel-Wik in 2005, with the objective of extracting substances from marine organisms that can be used for human and animal medicine, for the protection of plants against diseases, for cosmetics, and for food.The only manned submersible in Germany, JAGO, has had its home at IFM-GEOMAR since 2006. Special funding from the state of Schleswig-Holstein allowed the purchase of the deep sea KIEL 6000, a deep sea, remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV), and funding from the German Research Foundation (DFG) provided the ABYSS autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), both in 2008. A further ROV, the PHOCA, was added to IFM-GEOMAR's set of submersibles in 2011.