Recovery of a mooring.
Recovery of a mooring in the Labrador Sea. Photo: Thilo Klenz, GEOMAR
Map with ocean currents.
Map showing the area of deep “breathing” and export pathways. Solid green lines show the southwestward oxygen export observed in the study, and dashed lines show other possible routes for oxygen export. Graphic: Jannes Koelling, Dalhousie University
Recovery of a mooring
Recovery of a mooring with oxygen sensor. Photo: Sunke Schmitko, GEOMAR

Measuring the deep ocean’s blood stream

Novel oxygen sensors unravel the distribution of the vital gas

28.01.2022/Halifax/Kiel. Between Canada and Greenland, the ocean breathes in large quantities of oxygen every winter. A current system then distributes the vital gas further around the globe. Off Labrador, researchers of Dalhousie University in Halifax and GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel have measured the flow of oxygen into the interior of the deep sea directly for the first time. Their new findings are described in the journal Biogeosciences.

The Labrador Sea between Canada and Greenland is often referred to as a “lung of the deep ocean” because it is one of only a handful of locations worldwide where oxygen from the atmosphere can enter the deepest layers of the ocean. The ability to sustain animal life in the deep ocean is directly dependent on this localized “deep breathing”. The process is driven by wintertime cooling at the sea surface, which makes oxygen-rich, near-surface waters denser and heavy enough to sink to depths of around two kilometres in winter.

This deep mixing of oxygen in the central Labrador Sea is only a first step in the deep ocean’s life support system. Deep, boundary currents then distribute the oxygen to the rest of the Atlantic Ocean and beyond. This way, oxygen that is “inhaled” in the Labrador Sea can support deep ocean life off Antarctica and even in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

Scientists from Dalhousie University in Halifax, Canada and the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel in Germany have now, for the first time, measured the flow of oxygen into the deep ocean interior that is carried by these deep currents. It’s the oceanographic equivalent of measuring the transport of oxygen into our bodies through our main artery or aorta.

They unravelled the connection between oxygen uptake from the atmosphere and its onward transport into the interior using dissolved oxygen sensors that were mounted for two years on anchored cables which reached from the seafloor to near the surface. The sensors were deployed at depths of about 600 metres, where the scientists expected water from the the deep mixing region in the centre of the Labrador Sea (the lung), to propagate. Their findings are reported in the journal Biogeosciences.

Jannes Koelling, lead author of the study, explains “We wanted to know how much of the oxygen that is breathed in each winter actually makes it into the deep, fast-flowing currents that transport it across the globe.”

Dr. Koelling further explained “The newly inhaled oxygen was clearly noticeable as a pulse of high oxygen concentration that passed our sensors between March and August.”

The researchers’ new measurements revealed that about half of the oxygen taken up from the atmosphere in the central Labrador Sea in winter was injected into the deep boundary current over the following 5 months.  While some of the remaining oxygen may have been consumed locally by fish and other organisms, the bulk most likely took an alternative route out of the deep mixing region.

According to Dr. Koelling: “The circulation of the Labrador Sea is complex, and we’ve only focused, so far, on the most direct export route. Some oxygen-rich water may be transported eastwards, instead of to the southwest, and it may enter the boundary current off Greenland before returning southwards, over a longer time-period”. These other pathways, shown as dashed lines in the map, are being investigated with further studies, using additional oxygen sensors mounted on more moorings.

 “This study is an example of how monitoring enabled by the latest ocean technology can help us fill in knowledge gaps in this important region.”, says Dr. Dariia Atamanchuk, who leads the oxygen programme at Dalhousie.

“The installation of oxygen sensors on our moorings has allowed the classical ocean physics measurements we have been collecting in the region to be put into a broader context and to derive these exciting results,” says Dr. Johannes Karstensen, physical oceanographer at GEOMAR. The German institution maintains the mooring array where the data were collected since 1997.

The study and the new ability to monitor oxygen transport is timely given that climate model projections suggest an increased supply of freshwater, from melting glaciers and other climate-changes in the Arctic, could reduce the depth of wintertime mixing in the Labrador Sea in coming decades. This would make the Labrador Sea’s “breathing” shallower and reduce the life-supporting supply of oxygen to the deep sea.

Project funding:

The new findings are the result of a collaboration supported by the Ocean Frontier Institute, a transatlantic research organisation that connects researchers from several major institutions in Canada, Europe and the USA in a common focus on the climate-sensitive Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

Original publication:

Koelling, J., Atamanchuk, D., Karstensen, J., Handmann, P., and Wallace, D. W. R.: Oxygen export to the deep ocean following Labrador Sea Water formation, Biogeosciences 2022: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-19-437-2022.

Recovery of a mooring.
Recovery of a mooring in the Labrador Sea. Photo: Thilo Klenz, GEOMAR
Map with ocean currents.
Map showing the area of deep “breathing” and export pathways. Solid green lines show the southwestward oxygen export observed in the study, and dashed lines show other possible routes for oxygen export. Graphic: Jannes Koelling, Dalhousie University
Recovery of a mooring
Recovery of a mooring with oxygen sensor. Photo: Sunke Schmitko, GEOMAR